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This web site, Andean Rock Art Papers, offers three pages with Rock Art Papers, all dealing with the Andes of South America. The first page has been labelled Part 1 in the menu-bar at the top op the web page, while the second and third pages are labelled Part 2 and Part 3.  Each page may contain several papers that can be found by scrolling down the page. In the future further papers will be published and they will then be accessible by first clicking on the relevant page (Part 1, Part 2 or Part 3 in the menu-bar at the top of this page) and then by scrolling down the page. A list of all published papers will appear on each page (also providing the format how to refer to each paper).


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Header photograph: The author at Alto de Pitis, Valle de Majes, Peru.




Part 3 - Paper 1: Van Hoek, M. 2014. A Review of "UNA SERPIENTE Y UNA HISTORIA DEL AGUA. NOTAS PARA UN ESTUDIO DEL ALTO DE LAS GUITARRAS" by Cristóbal Campana Delgado (2013). Andean Rock Art Papers; Part 3 - Paper 1.




PART 3  PAPER 1


Published: 1 - 1 - 2014




A REVIEW OF:

UNA SERPIENTE Y UNA HISTORIA DEL AGUA.

NOTAS PARA UN ESTUDIO DEL ALTO DE LAS GUITARRAS.

By Cristóbal Campana Delgado (2013b).

Review by Maarten van Hoek


Please notice that the text and all graphical material (except for the photograph above) is my copyright !

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS AREA IN GOOGLE EARTH

This Google Earth Map also shows new discoveries of rock art sites in this area.



Introduction

Not very often books especially focussing on Andean rock art are published. Even more rarely detailed studies about one single Andean rock art site are being released. The book about Alto de la Guitarra by Prof. Dr. Cristóbal Campana Delgado (born only 70 km east of Alto de la Guitarra) is a most noteworthy and a very welcome exception. The sub-title at first modestly states that it concerns ‘notas’ (notes), but fortunately it affirms as well that it is an ‘estudio’ (study). And that is what it certainly is. I have seldom seen such a comprehensive work excellently dealing with one rock art site. In order to clarify my assessment it will be necessary to briefly describe the rock art site of Alto de la Guitarra, which I personally find one of the most mesmerising spots in the Andes. After having read the book by Cristóbal Campana, Alto de la Guitarra became an even more fascinating rock art site site.

The book about Alto de la Guitarra by Cristóbal Campana (2013b) measures 17 by 24 cm and has 307 numbered pages. It is lavishly illustrated with five Plates (Láminas), 202 numbered illustrations (mainly including striking and illustrative colour photos), many unnumbered illustrations and a number of very attractive black-and-white drawings (some [partially] coloured in) by the author. There are also two maps to which I shall return later on. Almost all illustrations are by the author. In this review I will refer to relevant text-fragments (for instance: Page 28) and illustrations (for instance: Fig. 138) in the book by Cristóbal Campana. The term "Figure" in this review refers to the illustrations in this review.

The manuscript starts with the Acknowledgements (Agradecimientos), the Content (Indice General) and a Prologue (Prólogo) by Alfredo Mires Ortiz. After the Introduction (Introducción) by Cristóbal Campana the book has been divided into three parts. The first part (Primera Parte: Un Mundo Desconocido) describes not only the petroglyph site of Alto de la Guitarra, but also the route from the Moche Valley to the site. The second part (Segunda Parte: La Recreación del Mundo) narrates of the environment and the techniques that have been used to create the symbols onto the rocks. The third part (Tercera Parte: El Mundo en Imagenes) illustrates the many images on the boulders. The book, that has 97 footnotes offering more detailed information, ends with an extensive bibliography (in which, unfortunately, a few publications have not been included). It is important to realise that, despite the many illustrations, the oeuvre by Cristóbal Campana offers no inventory of the rock art at Alto de la Guitarra (which - up to date - does not exist). It has not been the intention of Cristóbal Campana to present an inventory (but I hope he once will do so; deo volente).

 

Alto de la Guitarra, location and description

Alto de la Guitarra (also called Alto de las Guitarras by several authors) is a most extensive petroglyph site in the north of Peru. The site is located 23 km east of Trujillo (as the crow flies), the capital of the Department of La Libertad (Figure 1). Despite this relatively short distance Alto de la Guitarra is a very remote site, hard to reach. From the centre of Trujillo it takes less than 30 minutes by car to reach the INC sign (at 235 m O.D.), but then one has to first stagger the rock-strewn valley in a harsh desert landscape and then scramble steep mountain slopes to finally arrive at the highest point of the route; the watershed between the drainages of the Moche and Virú rivers (at about 863 m O.D. according to Google Earth; called ‘El Portillo’ and located at 917 m according to Cristóbal Campana [Page 47]). This rough walk of about 8 km single way took me at least three hours in 2004 (Núñez Jiménez [1986] even mentioned 6 hours single way, but he started his trip at Quirihuac on the River Moche). And, after having crossed the pass the spectacular panorama of Alto de la Guitarra unfolds; a large, undulating field of red boulders in a yellow/orange setting (although in wet times the desert can turn pretty green) surrounded by impressive mountains.

Figure 1. Location of Alto de la Guitarra, northern Peru.

Map © by Maarten van Hoek, based on Google Earth Relief Maps.


The actual field with petroglyph-boulders surveyed by Cristóbal Campana (Lámina I; Figure 6) is a large area measuring approximately 300 (E-W) by 1100 m (N-S) ranging from just SW of the pass in the north (at 860 m O.D.) to the point further south (at 810 m) where the Quebrada del Alto de las Guitarras joins the Río (de) Las Salinas (S in Figure 2). For more than 40 years since 1963 Cristóbal Campana intensively surveyed this huge area numerous times. Several of his surveys even lasted three to four days. The reason for his thorough and time-consuming approach will be explained further on. There is, however, (only) one flaw in the book by Cristóbal Campana.

It namely proves to be a problem to pinpoint the correct setting of Alto de la Guitarra in publications. For instance, Jean Guffroy (2009: 45) locates Alto de la Guitarra in Chicama, a river valley 55 km to the north of Alto de la Guitarra, while Rainer Hostnig (2003: 198) confusingly and incorrectly claims that the site is found ‘en la parte alta del valle del río Chicama, entre los valles de Santa Catalina y Virú, a unos 600 m msnm. En la margen izquierda del río Moche...’. The web site of Turismoi.pe locates Alto de la Guitarra on the south slopes of Cerro Gran Chiputur (or Cerro Ochiputur); a mountain no less than 14 km to the WSW of the factual location.

Also the well known rock art investigator Dr. Antonio Núñez Jiménez visited Alto de la Guitarra. In a most voluminous work on the petroglyphs of Peru he offers an (incomplete) inventory of the petroglyphs at Alto de la Guitarra (1986: 359-442). In this work he also includes an aerial photograph (1986: Fig. 590; rotated and not including a North Arrow) in which he drew an open arrow pointing to the purported location of the site (B in Figure 2). However, the tip of his arrow points to the wrong location (UTM coordinates in Google Earth 741082.00 m O and 9100440.00 m S); 1260 m to the NE of the factual location of Alto de la Guitarra (the focal point of the petroglyph field [arbitrarily chosen by me] formed by ‘El Sapo Croando’ and the ‘Gran Cabeza del Jaguar’ [Fig. 138]; circle 6 in Figure 6). Only with the aid of the high resolution photos of Google Earth, that became available after 2006, it is possible to recognise the error that Núñez Jiménez had made. The site of Alto de la Guitarra not even appears on his Fig. 590. One would now expect that a thorough surveyor like Cristóbal Campana would offer the correct location.


Figure 2. Location of Alto de la Guitarra (A), northern Peru (200 m contour interval; scale bar 1 km).

Map © by Maarten van Hoek, based on Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry.


Legend to Figure 2:

INC. White INC-sign (Camino Alto de Guitarras; Zona Arqueológica) at the entrance of the valley.

Q. Quebrada de Las Guitarras.

S. Quebrada (de) Las Salinas.

W. Watershed between the Moche and Virú drainages.

A. Factual location of Alto de la Guitarra and the Quebrada Alto de las Guitarras.

B. Incorrect location of Alto de la Guitarra according to Núñez Jiménez (1986: Fig. 590).

C. Incorrect location of Alto de la Guitarra according to Cristóbal Campana (2008: Fig. 1; 2009: Fig. 01; 2013a: Fig. 1; 2013b: Lámina II).

P. Location of Pampa Calata according to Daniel Castillo Benites (2010, 2012).

1. The true location of Cerro León.

2. The incorrect location of Cerro León according to Cristóbal Campana.

3. The location of Cerro de León according to the Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry.


The book by Cristóbal Campana has been completely written in Spanish and is clearly meant to be read by native Spanish speaking scholars. It is therefore not an easy book (certainly not for me). Despite being well organised, especially the location of several features in the area may appear puzzling to the uninformed reader and are hard to locate. One of the factors that renders the book to be confusing is the much detailed information about location and orientation and the use of numerous (geographical) names. Cristóbal Campana moreover states that the official Ordnance Survey Map of the area (Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry) uses the names of some quebradas (dry river valleys) and mountains incorrectly (Page 28). For instance, Cristóbal Campana explains (Page 29) that the Quebrada de Las Guitarras (Q in Figure 2) is in the Moche drainage (housing for instance the rock art sites of El Vagón I and II, Los Tres Cerritos and Negro Goyo [shown in the Google Earth Map]), while the Quebrada del Alto de Las Guitarras and the rock art site of Alto de la Guitarra (both marked with a capital A in Figures 2 and 3) are both in the Virú drainage, just south of the pass on the watershed (called El Portillo by Cristóbal Campana; E in Figure 3).

Figure 3. Location of the boulder field at Alto de la Guitarra (A), northern Peru (scale bar 1 km).

Map © by Maarten van Hoek, based on Google Earth.


Legend to Figure 3:

A. Yellow frame: Quebrada del Alto de Las Guitarras and the boulder field of Alto de la Guitarra.

B. Incorrect location of Alto de la Guitarra according to Núñez Jiménez (1986: Fig. 590).

C. Red frame: incorrect location of Alto de la Guitarra according to Cristóbal Campana (2008: Fig. 1; 2009: Fig. 01; 2013a: Fig. 1; 2013b: Lámina II).

E. The factual location of El Portillo.

P. The incorrect location of El Portillo according to Cristóbal Campana (2008: Fig. 1; 2009: Fig. 01; 2013a: Fig. 1; 2013b: Lámina II).

S. Quebrada (de) Las Salinas.

W. Watershed between the Moche and Virú drainages.

1. The true location of Cerro León (illustrated in Figure 4).

2. The incorrect location of Cerro León according to Cristóbal Campana (2008: Fig. 1; 2009: Fig. 01; 2013a: Fig. 1; 2013b: Lámina II).


Moreover, from the River Moche to the River Virú, and especially at the rock art site of Alto de la Guitarra, Cristóbal Campana assigned his own names (many invented by him: see Footnote 15 on Page 50) to many anthropic and natural features in the landscape, which adds to the confusion. In this respect it is a flaw that the book contains only three maps (the map in Fig. 41 will not be discussed here). Lámina I on Page 44 is a copy of the topographical map (Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry) on which Cristóbal Campana only added the extent of his search-area, but not the location of Alto de la Guitarra. Although this search-area correctly includes Alto de la Guitarra, the exact location of the site will remain unclear to any uninformed reader or someone who has not visited the area. His search-area is namely many times bigger than the actual petroglyph boulder field.

More problematic and confusing is the map in Lámina II on Page 45, especially as its conflicts with the information in Lámina I. Lámina II is a copy of a pre-2006 Google Earth satellite photo on which Cristóbal Campana added the route to Alto de la Guitarra (a yellow line), the pass (El Portillo), the location of the important Sacred Mountain (Apu) of Cerro León and the location of the petroglyph site of Alto de la Guitarra. Unfortunately however, the route and all the locations are incorrect. Regrettably this incorrect map has been published earlier in three earlier works by Cristóbal Campana (2008: Fig. 1; 2009: Fig. 01; 2013a: Fig. 1) and therefore it will be necessary to offer more accurate information here. To clarify this confusing situation some maps are essential (Figures 2, 3 and 6).

It is specifically surprising that - in 2013 - Cristóbal Campana, who visited the area numerous times, presents a map (Lámina II) with the incorrect location of Alto de la Guitarra (C in Figures 2 and 3; the UTM coordinates for this incorrect location in Google Earth are 742849.05 m O and 9098627.60 m S). This spot, indicated with white dots on his map, is located only 600 m south of the less known petroglyph site of Pampa Calata (UTM coordinates in Google Earth 742871.00 m O and 9099187.00 m S; P in Figure 2), which has recently been re-surveyed by archaeologist Daniel Castillo Benites (2010; 2012).

This error causes the information about another important feature of the landscape to be most confusing and incorrect. It concerns the location of a Sacred Mountain, called an Apu or Pong (Footnote 22). This Sacred Mountain is called Cerro León by Cristóbal Campana (Fig. 39B). According to the Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry, a mountain with this name (Cerro del León) forms the NW extension of Cerro Alto (de) Guitarras, which is in Moche, 7 km north of Alto de la Guitarra (3 in Figure 2).

Cristóbal Campana now argues (Page 28) that the map Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry offers the incorrect information and states that Cerro León (numbered 3 on his Lámina II) is located ‘en Alto de las Guitarras’, 1300 m west of the (incorrect!) location of Alto de la Guitarra. Thus he incorrectly pinpoints Cerro León as well (his incorrect location is marked with 2 in Figures 2 and 3). This incorrect Cerro León in fact is a mountain (summit at 1099 m O.D. - unnamed on the map Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry) that is located between Quebrada El Peñon to the east and Río (de) Las Salinas to the west. However, that unnamed mountain (2 in Figure 3) is not the Cerro León photographed by Cristóbal Campana (Figs 39, 39B and 94), and Alto de la Guitarra is not located east of that nameless mountain, but west of it.

This error is also demonstrated by the fact that his photographs illustrating the mountain that Cristóbal Campana calls Cerro León (Figs 39, 39B and 48) actually depict a mountain (Figure 4), which is located 4385 m to the west of the focal point of the factual site (circle 6 in Figure 6). On the map Hoja Cartográfica Número 17-f / Salaverry this mountain is called Cerro de los Colorado (summit at 1550 m O.D.). Consequently this mountain (Figure 4; 1 in Figures 2 and 3) is the true Apu of Alto de la Guitarra; the true ‘Cerro Leon’, labelled as such by Cristóbal Campana because of the biomorphic shape of the mountain (Figs 39 and 39B).


Figure 4.  The Sacred Mountain of Cerro León (the flat-topped mountain), looking west from near El Portillo across the eastern part (foreground) and western part (centre) of the Loma Naranja.

Photograph © by Maarten van Hoek, 2004.


Having visited Alto de la Guitarra myself (several petroglyphs from Alto de la Guitarra have been described and illustrated by me [Van Hoek 2011a: 45-51, 63-65, 68-71, 75-76, 80-82, 84-87, 105-106, 117, 124, 128-129, 133]), I consider (completely arbitrarily) the two large stones, called ‘El Sapo Croando’ and the ‘Gran Cabeza del Jaguar’ by Cristóbal Campana (Fig. 34; Figure 5) to represent the focal point of the petroglyph field at Alto de la Guitarra (the UTM coordinates of those two large boulders [circle 6 in Figure 6; Figure 5] in Google Earth are 740070.65 m O and 9099684.57 m S). In order to at least illuminate the location of the most important features at Alto de la Guitarra I composed a map (Figure 6) so that the interested reader can more easily find his or her way when reading the book by Cristóbal Campana.



Figure 5.   The focal point of Alto de la Guitarra, arbitrarily chosen by me, formed by two large petroglyph boulders (‘El Sapo Croando’ [left] and the ‘Gran Cabeza del Jaguar’), unfortunately severely vandalised by earlier visitors. Looking south (from the Yellow Circle in Figure 6) across the Quebrada Ancha towards the (invisible) Núcleo Sur.

Photograph © by Maarten van Hoek, 2004.

 

Figure 6. The boulder field at Alto de la Guitarra and associated prehistoric structures, northern Peru (scale bar 100 m). Map © by Maarten van Hoek, based on Google Earth, featuring the major areas (written in blue) and the location of ten petroglyph boulders (in seven yellow circles; see the legend) described by Cristóbal Campana (2013b).

In 2004 I only visited the Núcleo Norte and the northern parts of the Quebrada Ancha (Alta and Media). The blue-dotted lines indicating the limits of the three major zones (Núcleo Norte, Quebrada Ancha and Núcleo Sur) have arbitrarily been chosen by me.



Legend to Figure 6:

1. La Serpiente que Asciende (Fig. 89).

2. El Sacerdote Sonriente (Fig. 141) and the Piedra de los Tres Rostros (Fig. 146).

3. El Pescador Sagrado (Fig. 150).

4. El Prisoniero del Tiempo (Fig. 151).

5. El Orador (Fig. 157).

6. El Sapo Croando (Fig. 138) and the Gran Cabeza del Jaguar (Fig. 108).

7. La Mesa del Agua (Fig. 163).

8. El Sapo Gigante (Fig. 139).

a, b and c: Ancient structures on the Quebrada Ancha (marked as a, b and c in Fig. 49).

W. Watershed between the Moche and Virú drainages.

 








Further Observations

Several facts make the work by Cristóbal Campana outstanding. First there is the enormous amount of much detailed information about the environment, the petroglyphs and their cultural background. Also the archaeological remains of the area have been included into his survey. Many natural groupings of boulders seem to have been interpreted by him as anthropic structures, but in my opinion many dotted lines in his photographs (especially in Chapter 5.0.0) seem to have been chosen rather subjectively. For instance Fig. 192 (showing the focal point of Alto de la Guitarra) and Fig 197.

Cristóbal Campana is also one of the very few Andean investigators who fortunately ascribe many of the images at Alto de la Guitarra to the coastal Sechín and Cupisnique cultures from the Formative Period (2000 B.C. to 200 B. C.) and thus he opportunely avoids the often-made mistake that such images are of highland Chavín origin (for instance Núñez Jiménez 1986: 359). He also rightfully argues that most of the imagery at Alto de la Guitarra is much older than Chavín (Page 86).

Cristóbal Campana is also one of the very few investigators who connect the imagery with the landscape in agreement with Andean cosmology: contrasting elements do not create a conflict, but generate harmonisation (se dualizan - no polarizan - los elementos de paisaje simbóloco [page 80]). But Cristóbal Campana goes further than that.

Most importantly, Cristóbal Campana is one of the first scholars (if not the very first scholar) who argued that several petroglyph boulders at Alto de la Guitarra proved to have specific natural biomorphic shapes and - as a result - that especially those biomorphic boulders were selected for petroglyph production. Such boulders resemble for example a snake (Fig. 97), a frog or toad (Fig. 137), a feline (Fig. 105), a fish (Fig. 122) and a bird’s head (Fig. 127). In an earlier publication Cristóbal Campana argued: ‘Reconoce las dos formas exteriores más simples para su diferenciación: bidimensionales y tridimensionales. Existen imágenes bidimensionales o grabadas sobre la superficie de la roca, siendo éstas las más comunes. En cambio hay otras que son tridimensionales o en “bulto”. Así, aprovechan la forma casual de la roca a la que se le agrega algunos rasgos de diseño pictográfico percutiéndola’ (Campana Delgado 2004a). Thus Campana Delgado was one of the first rock art investigators who argued that specific stones were especially selected to be engraved with petroglyphs because of the natural biomorphic shape of those stones.

To achieve this information it was necessary that Cristóbal Campana patiently visited and painstakingly observed many boulders many times at many differing times of the day and of the year (on a one day visit many petroglyphs will be hard to see or even be invisible [Fig. 118] and therefore I missed many petroglyphs during my short visit). Only after numerous visits during 40 years it was possible for Cristóbal Campana to discover this ‘hidden’ symbolism. Even if one does not agree with his conclusions, one must admire the enormous labour and amount of time that was necessary to compile an account of such tri-dimensional boulders with bi-dimensional images and the stories they tell.

Although the book also may be regarded as a compilation of several earlier published papers and unpublished manuscripts (2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2006a, 2006b, 2008, 2009, 2013a), the book presents many more interesting interpretations of rock art panels at Alto de la Guitarra. Most fascinating are the many chapters in Part 3 describing (the petroglyphs on) specific boulders, subjectively but aptly called - among many others - El Sacerdote Sonriente, Los Guerreros Danzantes and especially El Prisoniero del Tiempo by Cristóbal Campana. This last example convincingly proves that the play of sunlight and shadow was an important factor in the selection of certain boulders and the creation of bi-dimensional images on those tri-dimensional rocks. In this respect even very small details are being put forward to strengthen his hypothesis of light and shadow (Fig. 92; see also the [unnumbered] illustrations on page 199; this petroglyph panel is illustrated in Figure 7 showing that the time of the day and year is decisive to observe the play of light and shadow).

Figure 7. Petroglyph boulder near the southern end of the Núcleo Norte. Looking south across the Quebrada Ancha towards the (invisible) Núcleo Sur.

Photograph © by Maarten van Hoek, 2004.


But Cristóbal Campana not only regarded the boulders to be the subject of light and shadow; also natural features in the surrounding landscape are regarded by him to represent biomorphic shapes and are also explained by him in terms of light and shadow (Figs. 6 and 39). Again, one does not have to accept his hypotheses, but after having read the book one will be much inclined to at least accept a number of ideas (if not all). In this respect it is much better to read the book and to observe the photographs and drawings by Cristóbal Campana than to visit the site for just one day!

One of the benefits of the work by Cristóbal Campana is also that one can scan (close-up) photographs of the two large boulders at the focal point at Alto de la Guitarra (for instance Figs. 108, 110, 138) before they had been severely violated by some vandal(s) who painted ugly graffiti onto those two rocks (Figure 5), disgracefully blurring many petroglyphs.

Cristóbal Campana not only is an accomplished writer, he also is a gifted artist (some of his paintings can be seen in his 2009 publication). The many drawings in his new book are all very skilfully made. In this respect it is fortunate that Cristóbal Campana only included his own drawings of rock art panels at Alto de la Guitarra and did not use earlier published drawings like the illustrations by Núñez Jiménez (1986). Even though each drawing of a rock art panel is to some extent subjective (and thus often inaccurate or incomplete), the renderings by Núñez Jiménez are too often completely incorrect and many cannot be used in any scientific work (Van Hoek 2011b: 49-56).

In conclusion, the oeuvre by Cristóbal Campana, text and illustrations, is completely his own creation; the product of many years affectionately observing the boulders at Alto de la Guitarra, which resulted in a brilliant and attractive book about a fascinating rock art site in the Andes. His book is a intriguing testimony of a true passion.


Acknowledgements

This review could never have been written without the help of Dr. Cristóbal Campana Delgado. I am grateful to Cristóbal, not only for kindly sharing his latest book with me, but also for the many manuscripts and photographs of Alto de la Guitarra he has shared with me during the last ten years.

 

Bibliography of Works by Cristóbal Campana Delgado about Alto de la Guitarra

Campana Delgado, C. 2003. Petroglifos del "Alto de Las Guitarras" y el estilo Cupisnique. Actas presentadas al IV Simposio Internacional de Arte Rupestre. Jujuy, Argentina.

Campana Delgado, C. 2004a. La sal, el poder y los petroglifos del Alto de las guitarras. In: Rupestreweb. Ponencia presentada en el marco del Primer Encuentro Peruano de Arte Rupestre (EPAR-1) 2004. Lima, Perú. Colaboración de Víctor Falcón Huayta especial para Rupestreweb.

Campana Delgado, C. 2004b. EL PRISIONERO DEL TIEMPO: Un petroglifo del “Alto de las Guitarras. Actas del Primer Simposio nacional de arte rupestre. Cusco, Perú. Editado por  Rainer Hostnig, Matthias Strecker y Jean Guffroy. Actes & mémoires de l'Institut français d'études andines, 12. Lima, Perú.

Campana Delgado, C. 2006a. ALTO DE LAS GUITARRAS: LAS IMÁGENES CAMBIANTES Y EL TIEMPO. Unpublished MS. Lima. Perú.

Campana Delgado, C. 2006b. El Alto de Las Guitarras: LA TÉCNICA EN LAS MANIFESTACIONES RUPESTRES. Unpublished MS. Lima. Perú.

Campana Delgado, C. 2008. EL “SACERDOTE SONRIENTE” - ANÁLISIS DE UN PERSONAJE CUPISNIQUE. Conferencia presentada en el III Simposio Nacional de Arte Rupestre, Huaraz, Perú, 2008. Trujillo, Perú.

Campana Delgado, C. 2009. El “Sacerdote Sonriente”. Un analísis de un personaje Cupisnique. In: Pueblo Continente; Vol 20-1; pp 38 - 54. Revista Official de la Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego. Trujillo, Perú.

Campana Delgado, C. 2013a. El “Sacerdote sonriente”. Análisis de un personaje Cupisnique. In: Rupestreweb.

Campana Delgado, C. 2013b. UNA SERPIENTE Y UNA HISTORIA DEL AGUA. NOTAS PARA UN ESTUDIO DEL ALTO DE LAS GUITARRAS. Fondo Editorial de la Universdidad Privada Antenor Orrego. Trujillo, Perú.

 

Further References

Castillo Benites, D. 2010. Revisión del sitio de Arte Rupestre Pampa Calata: nuevos reportes. Arkeos - Perspectives em Diálogo 28; pp 49 - 55. SEIPHAR. Tomar, Portugal.

Castillo Benites, D. 2012. REVISION DEL SITIO DE ARTE RUPESTRE PAMPA CALATA: NUEVOS REPORTES. MS with different illustrations distributed by the author in 2012 via email.

Guffroy, J. 2009. Imagénes y paisajes; rupestres del Perú. Editions IRD, Marseille, France; Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Perú.

Hostnig, R. 2003. Arte rupestre del Perú. Inventario Nacional. CONCYTEC, Lima, Perú.

Núñez Jiménez, A. 1986. Petroglifos del Perú. Panorama mundial del arte rupestre. 2da. Ed. PNUD-UNESCO - Proyecto Regional de Patrimonio Cultural y Desarrollo, La Habana, Cuba.

VAN HOEK, M. 2011a. The Chavín Controversy - Rock Art from the Andean Formative Period. Oisterwijk, The Netherlands.

VAN HOEK, M. 2011b. Petroglyphs of Peru - Following the Footsteps of Antonio Núñez Jiménez. Oisterwijk, The Netherlands.




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